Histology versus cytology: PD-L1 testing in non-small cell lung cancer

Nagio Takigawa, Nobuaki Ochi, Hiromichi Yamane


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab have been developed to treat malignant tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ICIs inhibit programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling between tumor cells expressing PD-L1 and cytotoxic T lymphocytes expressing PD-1.