Environmental and occupational determinants of lung cancer
Lung cancer has become a global problem, from a rare disease to an emerging public health issue. The current data of GLOBOCAN 2018, indicates that this disease has recorded highest mortality among all types of cancer. The etiological factors of lung cancer have become more multiplex because of increasing industrialization and environmental pollution around the world, especially in India. There is a rise in incidence of lung cancer among non-smokers and this can be attributed to environmental and occupational exposure to various kinds of hazardous substances. Target mutations are high in Lung cancer among non-smokers when compared to smokers. Some developed countries have guidelines and policies for prevention and control of risk factors focusing on these issues. Intervention aiming for primary prevention can be an important and cost-effective tool in developing countries to deal with increasing incidence of lung cancer. There is a need to define high risk group among non-smokers after taking into account environmental and occupational determinants as important risk factors. Research on etiology of lung cancer and prevention provides evidence to work on global incidence and prevalence of lung cancer, and for designing cost effective lung cancer prevention strategies. Research in the area of lung cancer prevention should be considered to recognize the areas where action is required to prevent environment and occupation related lung cancer. The government and occupational health and safety organizations have taken many steps in the last few years that can help to protect workers from these exposures. But the dangers are still there, so there is a need to do more to limit these exposures around workplace. This whole situation guides us to advocate population-based intervention along with policy implementation.