Toxicity of tumor immune checkpoint inhibitors—more attention should be paid
In recent years, immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has achieved amazing results in the treatment of lung cancer, melanoma, renal clear cell carcinoma and other malignant tumors. Although ICIs have achieved significant efficacy in tumor treatment, the immune-related adverse events (irAEs) caused by non-specific immune activation of ICIs can directly affect the result of treatment, even threaten the life of patients. The most common form of irAEs involve the skin, lung, colon, liver and endocrine organs. However, it is noticeable that although irAEs of some organs are more common, actually any organ and tissue are likely to be affected, because of non-specific activation of the immune system. Other tissues and organs, though rare, can be more severe and even fatal, such as neurological disorders and myocarditis. Therefore, effective management of irAEs is of great importance for the efficacy of immunotherapy. This review is focused on the morbidity, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of tumor immune toxic effects.