Extracellular vesicle-based EGFR genotyping in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from treatment-naive non-small cell lung cancer patients

Jae Young Hur, Jong Sik Lee, In Ae Kim, Hee Joung Kim, Wan Seop Kim, Kye Young Lee

Abstract

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EV) have been proven to contain double-stranded DNA reflecting the mutational status of the parental tumor cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which can be translated into clinically useful EV-based liquid biopsy for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotyping using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from tumor site.
Methods: Patients subjected for an initial lung cancer work-up underwent bronchoscopy and BALF was obtained from tumor site. After isolating EVs from BALF by ultracentrifugation, EV-derived DNA (EV DNA) was extracted for subsequent EGFR genotyping performed through peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated Real-Time PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rate of BALF EV-based EGFR genotyping were calculated in comparison to tissue genotyping.
Results: The average sensitivity and specificity of BALF EV-based EGFR genotyping were 76% and 87%, respectively, while the sensitivity significantly increased as the stage progressed. Especially, in stage IV, BALF EV-based EGFR typing identified all tissue-proven EGFR mutant cases (n=31) and detected 6 additional mutant cases. The concordance rate was 79% in stage I, 100% in stage II, 74% in stage III, and 92% in stage IV. As TNM stage advanced, especially in the presence of metastasis, concordance rate significantly increased (P<0.05).
Conclusions: The use of BALF for the collection of EV DNA in lung cancer patients resulted in a highly accurate diagnosis. The establishment of a fast and reliable method to identify target genes using EV DNA illustrated that it can overcome the problems of low sensitivity and instability in using cell-free DNA (cfDNA).