S100B and S100B autoantibody as biomarkers for early detection of brain metastases in lung cancer

Humberto Choi, Vikram Puvenna, Chanda Brennan, Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Xiao-Feng Wang, Michael Phillips, Damir Janigro, Peter Mazzone


Background: S100B is an astrocytic protein that enters the blood stream when there is disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Over time, antibodies against S100B develop in the sera of patients who experience persistent or repeated BBB disruptions. We explored the use of serum S100B protein and S100B autoantibodies for the detection of brain metastasis in patients with lung cancer.
Methods: One hundred and twenty eight untreated patients with lung cancer who had brain imaging performed as part of their routine evaluation, participated. Serum S100B protein levels were measured by direct ELISA and S100B autoantibody levels by reverse ELISA. These levels in patients with brain metastases were compared alone and in combination to those without brain metastases.
Results: Eighteen (14%) patients had brain metastasis at the time of lung cancer diagnosis. An S100B cutoff of 0.058 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 43% for brain metastasis. When an autoantibody threshold of <2.00 absorbance units was used in conjunction with S100B, the sensitivity remained at 89%, and the specificity increased to 58%. The overall accuracy was 51% with S100B alone, improving to 62.5% when combined with autoantibodies.
Conclusions: Serum S100B and S100B autoantibody levels may help to identify which lung cancer patients have brain metastases.