Activated RET and ROS: two new driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma
Rearrangements of ROS1 and RET have been recently described as new driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma with a frequency of about 1% each. RET and ROS1 rearrangements both represent unique molecular subsets of lung adenocarcinoma with virtually no overlap with other known driver mutations described so far in lung adenocarcinoma. Specific clinicopathologic characteristics have been described and several multitargeted receptor kinase inhibitors have shown in vitro activity against NSCLC cells harbouring these genetic alterations. In addition, the MET/ALK/ROS inhibitor crizotinib has already shown impressive clinical activity in patients with advanced ROS1-positive lung cancer. Currently, several early proof of concept clinical trials are testing various kinase inhibitors in both molecular subsets of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Most probably, personalized treatment of these genetically defined new subsets of lung adenocarcinoma will be implemented in routine clinical care of lung cancer patients in the near future.